Apr 142013
 

 Safety Precautions use before TV servicing and repairing

 Safety Precautions use before TV servicing and repairing

1. Be sure that all of the built-in protective devices are replaced. Restore any missing protective shields.

2. When reinstalling the chassis and its assemblies, be sure to restore all protective devices, including: nonmetallic control knobs and compartment covers.

Continue reading »

Jan 042013
 

Television system ( T V)

INTRODUCTION

The aim of a television system is to extend the sense of sight beyond its natural limits and to transmit sound associated with the scene. The picture signal is generated by a television camera and sound signal by a microphone. In the 625 line CCIR monochrome and PAL-B colour TV systems adopted by India, the picture signal is amplitude modulated and sound signal frequency modulated before transmission. The two carrier frequencies are suitably spaced and their modulation products radiated through a common antenna. As in radio communication, each television station is allotted different carrier frequencies to enable selection of the desired station at the receiving end.

The TV receiver has tuned circuits in its input section called ‘tuner’. It selects desired channel signal out of the many picked up by the antenna. The selected RF band is converted to a common fixed IF band for the convenience of providing large amplification to it. The amplified IF signals are detected to obtain video (picture) and audio (sound) signals. The video signal after large amplification drives the picture tube to reconstruct the televised picture on the receiver screen. Similarly, the audio signal is amplified and fed to the loudspeaker to produce sound output associated with the scene.

PICTURE TRANSMISSION

The picture information is optical in character and may be thought of as an assemblage of a large number of tiny areas representing picture details. These elementary areas into which picture details may be broken up are known as ‘picture elements’ or ‘pixels’, which when viewed together represent visual information of the scene. Thus, at any instant there are almost an infinite number of pieces of information that need to be picked up simultaneously for transmitting picture details. However, simultaneous pick-up is not practicable because it is not feasible to provide a separate signal path (channel) for the signal obtained from each picture element. In practice, this problem is solved by a method known as ‘scanning’ where conversion of optical information to electrical form is carried out element by element, one at a time and in a sequential manner to cover the entire picture. Besides, scanning is done at a very fast rate and repeated a large number of times per second to create an illusion (impression at the eye) of the simultaneous reception from all the elements, though using only one signal path.

Black and White Pictures

In a monochrome (black and white) picture, each element is either bright, some shade of grey or dark. A television camera, the heart of which is a camera tube, is used to convert this optical information into corresponding electrical signals, the amplitude of which varies in accordance with variations of brightness.

Fig. 1 shows very elementary details of one type of camera tube (vidicon) and associated components to illustrate the principle. An optical image of the scene to be transmitted is focused by a lens assembly on the rectangular glass face-plate of the camera tube. The inner side of the glass face-plate has a transparent conductive coating on which is laid a very thin layer of photoconductive material. The photolayer has very high resistance when no light falls on it, but decreases depending on the intensity of light falling on it. Thus depending on light intensity variations in the focused optical image, the conductivity of each element of photo layer changes accordingly. An electron beam is used to pick-up picture information now available on the target plate in terms of varying resistance at each point.

CRT

The beam is formed by an electron gun in the television camera tube. On its way to the inner side of glass face-plate, it is deflected by a pair of deflecting coils mounted on the glass envelope and kept mutually perpendicular to each other to achieve scanning of the entire target area. Scanning is done in the same way as one reads a written page to cover all the words in one line and all the lines on the page (see Fig. 2). To achieve this, the deflecting coils are fed separately from two sweep oscillators which continually generate suitable waveform voltages, each operating at a different desired frequency.

Magnetic deflection caused by the current in one coil gives horizontal motion to the beam from left to right at uniform rate and then brings it quickly to the left side to commence trace of the next line. The other coil is used to deflect the beam from top to bottom at a uniform rate and for its quick retrace back to the top of the plate to start this process over again. Two simultaneous motions are thus given to the beam, one from left to right across the target plate and the other from top to bottom thereby covering entire area on which electrical image of the picture is available. As the beam moves from element to element, it encounters a different resistance across the target-plate, depending on the resistance of photoconductive coating. The result is a flow of current which varies in magnitude as the elements are scanned. This current passes through a load resistance RL connected to the conductive coating on one side and to a dc supply source on the other. Depending on the magnitude of current, a varying voltage appears across resistance RL and this corresponds to optical information of the picture.

If the scanning beam moves at such a rate that any portion of the scene content does not have time to change perceptibly in the time required for one complete scan of the image, the resulting electrical signal contains true information existing in the picture during the time of scan. The desired information is now in the form of a signal varying with time and scanning may thus be identified as a particular process which permits conversion of information existing in space and time co-ordinates into time variations only. The electrical information thus obtained from the TV camera tube is generally referred to as video signal (video is Latin for ‘see’).

scanning beam

Colour Pictures

It is possible to create any colour including white by additive mixing of red, green and blue colour lights in suitable proportions. For example, yellow can be obtained by mixing red and green colour lights in the intensity ratio of 30 : 59. Similarly, light reflected from any colour picture element can be synthesized (broken up) into red, green and blue colour light constituents. This forms the basis of colour television where Red (R), Green (G) and Blue (B) colours are called primary colours and those formed by mixing any two of the three primaries as complementary colours. A colour camera, the elements of which are shown in Fig. 3, is used to develop signal voltages proportional to the intensity of each primary colour light.

Colour Pictures

It contains three camera tubes (vidicons) where each pick-up tube receives light of only one primary colour. Light from the scene falls on the focus lens and through that on special mirrors. Colour filters that receive reflected light via relay lenses split it into R, G and B colour lights.Thus, each vidicon receives a single colour light and develops a voltage proportional to the intensity of one of the primary colours. If any primary colour is not present in any part of the picture, the corresponding vidicon does not develop any output when that picture area is scanned. The electron beams of all the three camera tubes are kept in step (synchronism) by deflecting them horizontally and vertically from common driving sources.

Any colour light has a certain intensity of brightness. Therefore, light reflected from any colour element of a picture also carries information about its brightness called luminance. A signal voltage (Y) proportional to luminance at various parts of the picture is obtained by adding definite proportions of VR , V G and V B (30:59:11). This then is the same as would be developed by a monochrome (black and white) camera when made to scan the same colour scene. This i.e., the luminance (Y) signal is also transmitted alongwith colour information and used at picture tube in the receiver for reconstructing the colour picture with brightness levels as in the televised picture.

TELEVISION TRANSMITTER

television transmitter
An oversimplified block diagram of a monochrome television transmitter is shown in Fig. 4. The luminance signal from the camera is amplified and synchronizing pulses added before feeding it to the modulating amplifier. Synchronizing pulses are transmitted to keep the camera and the picture tube beams in step. The allotted picture carrier frequency is generated by a crystal controlled oscillator. The continuous wave (CW) sine wave output is given large amplification before feeding to the power amplifier where its amplitude is made to vary (AM) in accordance with the modulating signal received from the modulating amplifier. The modulated output is combined (see Fig. 4) with the frequency modulated (FM) sound signal in the combining network and then fed to the transmitting antenna for radiation.

Colour Transmitter

A colour television transmitter is essentially the same as the monochrome transmitter except for the additional need that colour (chroma) information is also to be transmitted. Any colour system is made compatible with the corresponding monochrome system. Compatibility means that the colour TV signal must produce a normal black and white picture on a monochrome receiver and a colour receiver must be able to produce a normal black and white picture from a monochrome television signal. For this, the luminance (brightness) signal is transmitted in a colour system in the same way as in the monochrome system and with the same bandwidth. However, to ensure compatibility, the colour camera outputs are modified to obtain (B-Y) and (R-Y) signals. These are modulated on the colour sub-carrier, the value of which is so chosen that on combining with the luminance signal, the sidebands of the two do not interfere with each other i.e., the luminance and colour signals are correctly interleaved. A colour sync signal called ‘colour burst’ is also transmitted for correct reproduction of colours.

Sound Transmission

There is no difference in sound transmission between monochrome and colour television systems. The microphone converts the sound associated with the picture being televised into proportionate electrical signal, which is normally a voltage. This electrical output, regardless of the complexity of its waveform, is a single valued function of time and so needs a single channel for its transmission. The audio signal from the microphone after amplification is frequency modulated, employing the assigned carrier frequency. In FM, the amplitude of carrier signal is held constant, whereas its frequency is varied in accordance with amplitude variations of the modulating signal. As shown in Fig..4, output of the sound FM transmitter is finally combined with the AM picture transmitter output, through a combining network, and fed to a common antenna for radiation of energy in the form of electromagnetic waves.

TELEVISION RECEIVER

TELEVISION RECEIVER

A simplified block diagram of a black and white television receiver is shown in Fig. 5. The receiving antenna intercepts radiated RF signals and the tuner selects desired channel’s frequency band and converts it to the common IF band of frequencies. The receiver employs two or three stages of intermediate frequency (IF) amplifiers. The output from the last IF stage is demodulated to recover the video signal. This signal that carries picture information is amplified and coupled to the picture tube which converts the electrical signal back into picture elements of the same degree of black and white. The picture tube shown in Fig. 6 is very similar to the cathode-ray tube used in an oscilloscope. The glass envelope contains an electron-gun structure that produces a beam of electrons aimed at the fluorescent screen. When the electron beam strikes the screen, light is emitted. The beam is deflected by a pair of deflecting coils mounted on the neck of picture tube in the same way as the beam of camera tube scans the target plate. The amplitudes of currents in the horizontal and vertical deflecting coils are so adjusted that the entire screen, called raster, gets illuminated because of the fast rate of scanning.

Elements of picture tube

The video signal is fed to the grid or cathode of the picture tube. When the varying signal voltage makes the control gridless negative, the beam current is increased, making the spot of light on the screen brighter. More negative grid voltage reduces brightness. If the grid voltage is negative enough to cut-off the electron beam current at the picture tube, there will be no light. This state corresponds to black. Thus the video signal illuminates the fluorescent screen from white to black through various shades of grey depending on its amplitude at any instant. This corresponds to brightness changes encountered by the electron beam of the camera tube while scanning picture details element by element. The rate at which the spot of light moves is so fast that the eye is unable to follow it and so a complete picture is seen because of storage capability of the human eye.

Sound Reception

The path of a sound signal is common with the picture signal from the antenna to a video detector section of the receiver. Here the two signals are separated and fed to their respective channels. The frequency modulated audio signal is demodulated after at least one stage of amplification. The audio output from the FM detector is given due amplification before feeding it to the loudspeaker.

Colour Receiver

Colour Receiver
A colour receiver is similar to the black and white receiver as shown in Fig. 7. The main difference between the two is the need of a colour or chroma subsystem. It accepts only the colour signal and processes it to recover (B-Y) and (R-Y) signals. These are combined with the Y signal to obtain VR , VG and VB signals as developed by the camera at the transmitting end. VG becomes available as it is contained in the Y signal. The three colour signals are fed after sufficient amplification to the colour picture tube to produce a colour picture on its screen.

As shown in Fig. 7, the colour picture tube has three guns corresponding to the three pick-up tubes in the colour camera. The screen of this tube has red, green and blue phosphors arranged in alternate stripes. Each gun produces an electron beam to illuminate corresponding colour phosphor separately on the fluorescent screen. The eye then integrates the red, green and blue colour information and their luminance to perceive actual colour and brightness of the picture being televised. The sound signal is decoded in the same way as in a monochrome receiver.

SYNCHRONIZATION

It is essential that the same co-ordinates be scanned at any instant both at the camera tube target plate and at the raster of picture tube, otherwise, the picture details would split and get distorted. To ensure perfect synchronization between the scene being televised and the picture produced on the raster, synchronizing pulses are transmitted during the retrace, i.e., fly-back intervals of horizontal and vertical motions of the camera scanning beam. Thus, in addition to carrying picture details, the radiated signal at the transmitter also contains synchronizing pulses. These pulses which are distinct for horizontal and vertical motion control, are processed at the receiver and fed to the picture tube sweep circuitry thus ensuring that the receiver picture tube beam is in step with the transmitter camera tube beam.

As stated earlier, in a colour television system additional sync pulses called colour burst are transmitted along with horizontal sync pulses. These are separated at the input of chroma section and used to synchronize the colour demodulator carrier generator. This ensures the correct reproduction of colours in the otherwise black and white picture.

RECEIVER CONTROLS

Most black and white receivers have on their front panel (i ) channel selector, ( ii ) fine tuning, ( iii ) brightness, ( iv ) contrast, ( v) horizontal hold and (vi ) volume controls besides an ON-OFF switch. Some receivers also provide a tone control. The channel selector switch is used for selecting the desired channel. The fine tuning control is provided for obtaining best picture details in the selected channel.

The hold control is used to get a steady picture in case it rolls up or down. The brightness control varies the beam intensity of the picture tube and is set for optimum average brightness of the picture. The contrast control has actually gained control of the video amplifier. This can be varied to obtain desired contrast between white and black contents of the reproduced picture. The volume and tone controls form part of the audio amplifier in sound section, and are used for setting volume and tonal quality of the sound output from the loudspeaker.

In colour receivers there is an additional control called ‘colour’ or ‘saturation’ control. It is used to vary the intensity or amount of colours in the reproduced picture. In modern colour receivers that employ integrated circuits in most sections of the receiver, the hold control is not necessary and hence usually not provided.

Mar 192012
 

Block Diagram of Colour Television

According to Block Diagram of Colour Television Sets In a colour television receiver, additional circuits are provided to deal with the colour.

The only difference between black and White Television set and colour Television set is the IF circuit is the importance of bandwidth for colour receivers. Remember that video frequencies around 3.58 MHz just show details in monochrome, but these frequencies are essential for colour information. Without them, there is no colour. This is why the fine tuning control on colour television sets must be tuned exactly, or else the colour disappears, along with the higher resolution.

The sound is usually taken off before the video detector in colour sets, and a separate converter is used for it, instead of taking it from the video detector. The reason that this is done is to minimize a 920 KHz beat signal that can result between the 3.58 MHz colour subcarrier and the sound carrier signal. This signal would show up as interference in the television picture.

Block Diagram of Colour Television Sets


The output from the video detector is sent to two places: a series of colour circuits, and a luminance output amplifier.

The luminance amplifier also serves as a cutoff filter for frequencies above 3.2 MHz, thus removing all colour information from the luminance video signal and, alas, some of the sharpness and detail. On this amplifier is where you will find your brightness and contrast controls.

In the colour recovery circuits, several things happen. First, the video detector's output is sent through a colour "band pass" filter, which leaves us with just the chrominance information – the luminance has been removed. This chroma output contains both the colour information for the picture, and the colour burst. It is then sent to a burst separator to detect the phase and level of the colour burst. This is where you’ll find your "colour" control. Now we'll have a reference for the colours within the picture, which is sent to a crystal oscillator which generates constant 3.58 MHz subcarrier of the correct phase. This oscillator’s phase can be adjusted – this is your hue control. The oscillator is used with two colour demodulators to recover the R-Y and B-Y colour difference signals. The continuous wave subcarrier is delayed by 90 degrees of phase before it enters the R-Y demodulator. The R-Y and B-Y signals are combined further to recover the G-Y signal.

All three signals are then sent to the colour picture tube's grids. There, they are combined with three luminance drive signals in the correct proportions, giving us our familiar RGB signals for driving the electron guns within the picture tube to re-create the colour television picture.

When satellite television first hit the market in the early 1990s, home dishes were expensive metal units that took up a huge chunk of yard space. In these early years, only the most die-hard TV fans would go through all the hassle and expense of putting in their own dish. Satellite TV was a lot harder to get than broadcast and cable TV.

Today, you see compact satellite dishes perched on rooftops all over the United States. Drive through rural areas beyond the reach of the cable companies, and you'll find dishes on just about every house. The major satellite TV companies are luring in more consumers every day with movies, sporting events and news from around the world and the promise of movie-quality picture and sound.

Satellite TV offers many solutions to broadcast and cable TV problems. Though satellite TV technology is still evolving, it has already become a popular choice for many TV viewers.

In this article, we'll find out how satellite TV works, from TV station to TV set. We'll also learn about the changing landscape of TV viewing and some basic differences that distinguish satellite TV from cable and over-the-air broadcast TV.

The output from the video detector is sent to two places: a series of colour circuits, and a luminance output amplifier.

The luminance amplifier also serves as a cutoff filter for frequencies above 3.2 MHz, thus removing all colour information from the luminance video signal and, alas, some of the sharpness and detail. On this amplifier is where you will find your brightness and contrast controls.

In the colour recovery circuits, several things happen. First, the video detector's output is sent through a colour "band pass" filter, which leaves us with just the chrominance information – the luminance has been removed. This chroma output contains both the colour information for the picture, and the colour burst. It is then sent to a burst separator to detect the phase and level of the colour burst. This is where you’ll find your "colour" control. Now we'll have a reference for the colours within the picture, which is sent to a crystal oscillator which generates constant 3.58 MHz subcarrier of the correct phase. This oscillator’s phase can be adjusted – this is your hue control. The oscillator is used with two colour demodulators to recover the R-Y and B-Y colour difference signals. The continuous wave subcarrier is delayed by 90 degrees of phase before it enters the R-Y demodulator. The R-Y and B-Y signals are combined further to recover the G-Y signal.

All three signals are then sent to the colour picture tube's grids. There, they are combined with three luminance drive signals in the correct proportions, giving us our familiar RGB signals for driving the electron guns within the picture tube to re-create the colour television picture.

When satellite television first hit the market in the early 1990s, home dishes were expensive metal units that took up a huge chunk of yard space. In these early years, only the most die-hard TV fans would go through all the hassle and expense of putting in their own dish. Satellite TV was a lot harder to get than broadcast and cable TV.

Today, you see compact satellite dishes perched on rooftops all over the United States. Drive through rural areas beyond the reach of the cable companies, and you'll find dishes on just about every house. The major satellite TV companies are luring in more consumers every day with movies, sporting events and news from around the world and the promise of movie-quality picture and sound.

Satellite TV offers many solutions to broadcast and cable TV problems. Though satellite TV technology is still evolving, it has already become a popular choice for many TV viewers.

In this article, we'll find out how satellite TV works, from TV station to TV set. We'll also learn about the changing landscape of TV viewing and some basic differences that distinguish satellite TV from cable and over-the-air broadcast TV.

Mar 192012
 

Block Diagram of Black and White Television 

Block Diagram of B & W Television Sets

According to the Block Diagram of Black and White Television Sets In a typical black and white television receiver, the signal from the antenna is fed to the tuner. Two channel selector switches – one for the VHF (very-high-frequency) channels 2-13 and the other for the UHF (ultra-high-frequency) channels 14-69 -are used. They connect circuits that are tuned to the desired channels and, also discriminate against signals from undesired channels. These circuits also form part of an amplifier, designed to add as little snow to the signal as possible.

The amplified signals from the desired channel are then passed to the mixer, which transposes all the signal frequencies in the channel to different values, called intermediate frequencies. The output of the tuner consists of all the signals in the desired channel, but the intermediate channel is fixed in the frequency band from 41 to 47 MHz, no matter what channel is tuned in. This is kind of like those cable television "set top" converters, that, regardless of what channel you’re watching, always convert it to "channel 3" for your TV set.

From the tuner, the 41-47 MHz channel with all picture and sound information present is passed successively through several additional amplifiers (from two to four intermediate frequency, or IF, amplifiers), which provide most of the amplification in the receiver. Their amplification is automatically adjusted, being maximum on a weak signal and less on a strong signal. So far the receiver handles the signals in the channel just like they would be received from the transmitter, except for the shift to intermediate frequencies and the amplification.

The next stage is the video detector, which removes the high frequency carrier signal and recovers the video signal. The detector also reproduces (at a lower frequency) the sound carrier and its frequency variations. The sound signal is then separated from the picture signal and passes through a frequency detector, which recovers the audio signal. This signal is amplified further and fed to the loudspeaker, where it re-creates the accompanying sound. The picture signal from the video detector is used in the normal fashion for display on the CRT of the television receiver.

Mar 152012
 

WORLD TELEVISION SIGNAL GUIDEWORLD TELEVISION SIGNAL GUIDE

The table below lists broadcast standards by country.

There are three main television standards used throughout the world.

NTSC – National Television Standards Committee

Developed in the US and first used in 1954, NTSC is the oldest existing broadcast standard. It consists of 525 horizontal lines of display and 60 vertical lines. Only one type exists, known as NTSC M. It is sometimes irreverently referred to as "Never Twice the Same Color."

SECAM – Système Électronique pour Couleur avec Mèmoire.

Developed in France and first used in 1967. It uses a 625-line vertical, 50-line horizontal display. Different types use different video bandwidth and audio carrier specifications. Types B and D are usually used for VHF. Types G, H, and K are used for UHF. Types I, N, M, K1 and L are used for both VHF and UHF. These different types are generally not compatible with one another. SECAM is sometimes irreverently referred to as "Something Essentially Contrary to the American Method" or "SEcond Color Always Magenta."

PAL – Phase Alternating Line

Developed in Germany and first used in 1967. A variant of NTSC, PAL uses a 625/50-line display. Different types use different video bandwidth and audio carrier specifications. Common types are B, G, and H. Less common types include D, I, K, N, and M. These different types are generally not compatible with one another. Proponents of PAL irreverently call it "Perfection At Last," while critics of its enormous circuit complexity call it "Pay A Lot" or "Picture Always Lousy."

Television Standards by Country

Country

Signal Type

Afghanistan

PAL B, SECAM B

Albania

PAL B/G

Algeria

PAL B/G

Angola

PAL I

Antarctica

NTSC M

Antigua & Barbuda

NTSC M

Argentina

PAL N

Armenia

SECAM D/K

Aruba

NTSC M

Australia

PAL B/G

Austria

PAL B/G

Azerbaijan

SECAM D/K

Azores

PAL B

Bahamas

NTSC M

Bahrain

PAL B/G

Bangladesh

PAL B

Barbados

NTSC M

Belarus

SECAM D/K

Belgium

PAL B/H

Belgium (Armed Forces Network)

NTSC M

Belize

NTSC M

Benin

SECAM K

Bermuda

NTSC M

Bolivia

NTSC M

Bosnia/Herzegovina

PAL B/H

Botswana

SECAM K, PAL I

Brazil

PAL M

British Indian Ocean Territory 

NTSC M

Brunei Darussalam

PAL B

Bulgaria

PAL

Burkina Faso

SECAM K

Burundi

SECAM K

Cambodia

PAL B/G, NTSC M

Cameroon

PAL B/G

Canada

NTSC M

Canary Islands

PAL B/G

Central African Republic

SECAM K

Chad

SECAM D

Chile

NTSC M

China (People'S Republic)

PAL D

Colombia

NTSC M

Congo (People'S Republic)

SECAM K

Congo, Dem. Rep. (Zaire)

SECAM K

Cook Islands

PAL B

Costa Rica

NTSC M

Cote D'Ivoire (Ivory Coast)

SECAM K/D

Croatia

PAL B/H

Cuba

NTSC M

Cyprus

PAL B/G

Czech Republic

PAL B/G (cable), PAL D/K (broadcast)

Denmark

PAL B/G

Diego Garcia

NTSC M

Djibouti

SECAM K

Dominica

NTSC M

Dominican Republic

NTSC M

East Timor

PAL B

Easter Island

PAL B

Ecuador

NTSC M

 

Mar 152012
 

 SPECTRUM CHART

Radio Frequency Bandwidth
The Allocated Radio Spectrum is located between 9 KHz and 300 GHz


Bandwidth DESCRIPTION

FREQUENCY RANGE

Extremely Low Frequency (ELF)

 

 

0

 

to

3

KHz

Very Low Frequency (VLF)

 

 

3

KHz

to

30

KHz

Radio Navigation &
maritime/aeronautical mobile

 

 

9

KHz

to

540

KHz

Low Frequency (LF)

 

 

30

KHz

to

300

KHz

Medium Frequency (MF)

 

 

300

KHz

to

3000

KHz

AM Radio Broadcast

 

 

540

KHz

to

1630

KHz

Travellers Information Service

 

 

1610

KHz

 

 

 

High Frequency (HF)

 

 

3

MHz

to

30

MHz

 Shortwave Broadcast Radio

 

 

5.95

MHz

to

26.1

MHz

Very High Frequency (VHF)

 

 

30

MHz

to

300

MHz

 Low Band: TV Band 1 – Channels 2-6

 

 

54

MHz

to

88

MHz

Mid Band: FM Radio Broadcast

 

 

88

MHz

to

174

MHz

High Band: TV Band 2 – Channels 7-13

 

 

174

MHz

to

216

MHz

Super Band (mobile/fixed radio & TV)

 

 

216

MHz

to

600

MHz

Ultra-High Frequency (UHF)

 

 

300

MHz

to

3000

MHz

Channels 14-70

 

 

470

MHz

to

806

MHz

L-band:

 

 

500

MHz

to

1500

MHz

Personal Communications Services (PCS)

 

 

1850

MHz

to

1990

MHz

Unlicensed PCS Devices

 

 

1910

MHz

to

1930

MHz

Superhigh Frequencies (SHF)
   (Microwave)

 

 

3

GHz

to

30.0

GHz

C-band

 

 

3600

MHz

to

7025

MHz

X-band:

 

 

7.25

GHz

to

8.4

GHz

Ku-band

 

 

10.7

GHz

to

14.5

GHz

Ka-band

 

 

17.3

GHz

to

31.0

GHz

Extremely High Frequencies (EHF)
(Millimeter Wave Signals)

 

 

30.0

GHz

to

300

GHz

Additional Fixed Satellite

 

 

38.6

GHz

to

275

GHz

Infrared Radiation

 

 

300

GHz

to

430

THz

Visible Light

 

 

430

THz

to

750

THz

Ultraviolet Radiation

 

 

1.62

PHz

to

30

PHz

X-Rays

 

 

30

PHz

to

30

EHz

Gamma Rays

 

 

30

EHz

to

3000

EHz

Mar 152012
 

DTH (Direct to Home)

Direct to home (DTH)DTH means direct to home basically this service is alternative of cable TV. It is the distribution of television signals from high powered geo-stationary satellites through a small dish antenna & satellite receivers in home across the country. This service works on K U band (14/12 GHz)& are fully digital.

  • The main advantage of KU band satellite broadcasting is that it requires physically manageable smaller size of dish antenna compared to that of C band. C band requires 3.6m PDA (14db gain at 4GHz) while KU band requires 0.6m PDA (35db gain at 12GHz).

 

  • DTH reception requires a small dish antenna 60cm or 90cm, which can be easily mounted on the roof top. Feed along with low noise block converter & set top box (integrated receiver decoder, IRD) with CAS(conditional access system). A bouquet of 40to50 video programs can be simultaneously received in DTH mode.

 

  • DTH uplink chain the sources are feed to a router & output are divided into A, B&C group. Each group contain two video sources .All group are multiplexed digitally (QPSK) modulated individually at 70 MHz IF. Each group is further doubly up converted at L band (950-1450MHz) at KU band (12-14GHz). A, B&C group up converted to KU band streams RFA (13891MHz), RFB (13895MHz),& RPC(13839MHz)& are individually amplified using Klystron high power amplifier(KHPA).

 

  • DTH Downlink chain  consist of a dish, LNBF & RF cable, set top box. RF  waves (12/14GHz) from satellite are received up by a level converting into electric signal. The electric signal is amplified and down converted to L band (950-1450MHz) Feed & LNBC are combined in single unit called LNBF. The L band signal goes to indoor unit. The set top box or IRD (integrated receiver decoder) down converts the L band signal to 70MHz IF signal performs digital demodulator, demultiplexing, decoding and finally gives audio video output to TV for viewing.

 

  • The only drawback of KU band is that the signal attenuates during rains.

Direct to home (DTH)

Dec 142011
 

Technical Tips

TELEVISION TRANSMISSION– STANDARDS AND TECHNIQUESVSB reception

In a TV broadcast both the sound signal and the video signal are to be conveyed to the viewer using radio frequency.  These two signals have very distinct features. The audio signal is a symmetrical signal without continuous current but the frequency does not exceed 20 kHz.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Low Power TV TransmitterLPT

The transmitter design is based on solid state techniques and employs modular construction. The video and audio signals are processed in the exciter electronics and modulated at low level, at IF frequency of 38.9 MHz and 33.4 MHz respectively. The modulated IF signals are combined and passed through IF corrector and VSB filter.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

THRULINE POWER METER

The Bird makes thru line power meter directional wattmeter is a portable insertion-type instrument for measuring forward and reflected power in coaxial transmission lines. It will accurately measure RF power under any load condition. Plug-in elements are available to fit your frequency and power needs.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Servo Voltage Stabilizers (AVR)

Servo Stabilizer is a revolutionary product in the field of voltage stabilization. It is specially built for constant voltage output for the areas where voltage supplies are fluctuating and damages the sophisticated equipment’s. This system keeps in check voltage variations by the fast rate of correction.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Diesel Generator

The diesel engine is a type of internal combustion engine, more specifically, a compression ignition engine, in which the fuel is ignited by the high temperature of compressed gas, rather than a separate source of energy (such as a spark plug).

 

 

 

 

 

 

WavefromThe Wavefrom Monitor is an operational monitor providing the signal monitoring features useful to the graphics workstation, telecine, all of the video features, Transmitter, or camera setup operator, for use by a person responsible for the look and continuity of the television picture.

Diesel Generator Maintenance – Minor

The following maintenance procedures must be followed to ensure a good performance of the equipment and extension of its lifetime.

CLEANING, LUBRICATING SYSTEM, FUEL SYSTEM, AIR INTAKE SYSTEM, EXHAUST SYSTEM

Aug 122011
 

Satellite Guide

The Satellite Transponder Guide is the Comprehensive Resource That Includes Everything You Need To Know About  Transponders.

Transponders Insat 4B 93.5° East
P/Channel Name Frequency S/R VID Type Mode
F.E.C Polar
Doordarshan
3725 27500 DVB TV FTA
4-Mar H
   
DD National       TV FTA
DD News       TV FTA
DD Bharati       TV FTA
DD Sports       TV FTA
DD Urdu       TV FTA
DD Bangla       TV FTA
Rajya Sabha TV       TV FTA
DD Dehradun
3750 4250 DVB TV FTA
4-Mar H
   
DD Raipur
3762 4250 DVB TV FTA
4-Mar H
   
DD Ranchi
3768 4250 DVB TV FTA
4-Mar H
   
DD Jammu
3774 4250 DVB TV FTA
4-Mar H
   
DD Hissar
3802 4250 DVB TV FTA
4-Mar H
   
DD Chandigarh
3808 4250 DVB TV FTA
4-Mar H
   
DD Port Blair
3822 4250 DVB TV FTA
4-Mar H
   
DD Bihar
3832 6250 DVB TV FTA
4-Mar H
   
DD North-East 
3841 6250 DVB TV FTA
4-Mar H
   
 Doordarshan
3925 27500 DVB TV FTA
4-Mar H
   
DD National       TV FTA
DD News       TV FTA
DD Sports        TV FTA
DD Bharati       TV FTA
DD Bangla       TV FTA
DD Podhigai       TV FTA
DD Saptagiri       TV FTA
DD Punjab       TV FTA
DD Malayalam       TV FTA
DD Oriya       TV FTA

 

Transponders @ Insat 3C at 74.0° East
T.P/Channel Name Frequency S/R VID Type Mode
F.E.C Polar
DD Feeds 3740 2500 DVB    
4-Mar V
Feeds 3745 2500 DVB    
4-Mar V
DD Feeds 3752 2500 DVB    
4-Mar V
DD Feeds 3756 2500 DVB    
4-Mar V
DD Feeds 3776 3800 DVB    
4-Mar V
DD National
3780 6250 DVB TV FTA
4-Mar H
   
Feeds 3781 2000 DVB    
4-Mar V
DD Feeds 3788 3800 DVB    
4-Mar V
DD Feeds 3796 3800 DVB    
4-Mar V
DD Feeds 3801 3800 DVB    
4-Mar V
Feeds 3868 2250 DVB    
4-Mar H
DD Feeds 3871 2250 DVB    
4-Mar H
DD Feeds 3874 2250 DVB    
4-Mar H
Feeds 3879 2200 DVB    
4-Mar H
Feeds 3884 2250 DVB    
4-Mar H
Feeds 3889 2250 DVB    
4-Mar H
DD Feeds 3895 2000 DVB    
4-Mar H
Feeds 3900 2250 DVB    
4-Mar H
Gyandarshan 4165 26000 DVB TV FTA
2-Jan H
Gyandarshan         FTA
DD Technology         FTA
CEC-UGC Education Channel         FTA
DD Technology         FTA
Gyandarshan 5 Test Card         FTA

 

Transponders Insat 2E 83.00 ° East 
P/Channel Name Frequency S/R VID Type Mode
F.E.C Polar
DD National
4071 5000 DVB TV FTA
  V
4-Mar  

 

Transponders Insat 4A 83.00 ° East 
P/Channel Name Frequency S/R VID Type Mode
F.E.C Polar
            Lok Sabha TV
4170 4650 DVB TV FTA
4-Mar
   
Jun 272011
 

Cable TV act

 
THE CABLE TELEVISION NETWORKS
(REGULATION) ACT, 1995
 
 
CHAPTER I
Preliminary
 
1. Short title, extent and commencement 137
2. Definitions 137
 
CHAPTER II
Regulation of cable television network
 
3. Cable television network not to be operated except after registration 138
4. Registration as cable operator 138
4A. Transmission of programmes through addressable system, etc.  139
5. Programme code 140
6. Advertisement code 141
7. Maintenance of register 141
8. Compulsory transmission of Doordarshan channels 141
9. Use of standard equipment in cable television network 141
10. Cable television network not to interfere with any telecommunication system 142
 

CHAPTER III
Seizure and confiscation of certain equipment

 
11. Power to seize equipment used for operating the cable television network 142
12. Confiscation 142
13. Seizure or confiscation of equipment not to interfere with other punishment 142
14. Giving of opportunity to the cable operator of seized equipment 142
  Appeal  
 

CHAPTER IV
Offences and penalties

 
15. Punishment for contravention of provisions of this Act 143
16. Offences by companies 143
17. Cognizance of offences 143
 

CHAPTER V
Miscellaneous

 
18. Power to prohibit transmission of certain programmes in public interest 144
19. Power to prohibit operation of cable television network in public interest 144
20. Application of other laws not barred 144
21. Power to make rules 145
22. Repeal and savings 145

 

 
THE CABLE TELEVISION NETWORKS
(REGULATION) ACT, 1995
[1]
 

 

 

An Act to regulate the operation of cable television networks in the country and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto.
Be it enacted by Parliament in the Forty-sixth Year of the Republic of India as follows.

 
CHAPTER I
Preliminary
1.
Short title, extent and commencement.—
(1) This Act may be called the Cable Television Networks (Regulation) Act, 1995.
(2) It extends to the whole of India.
(3) It shall be deemed to have come into force on the 29th day of September, 1994.
2.

Definitions.—In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires,—
[2][(a)    ‘authorised officer’ means, within his local limits of jurisdiction;-
(i)    a District Magistrate, or
(ii)   a Sub-divisional Magistrate, or
(iii)  a Commissioner of Police,
and includes any other officer notified in the Official Gazette, by the Central Government or the State Government, to be an authorised officer for such local limits of jurisdiction as may be determined by that Government;]
[3][(aa)]’cable operator’ means any person who provides cable service through a cable television network or otherwise controls or is responsible for the management and operation of a cable television network; 
(b)    ‘cable service’ means the transmission by cables of programmes including re-transmission by cables of any broadcast television signals;
(c)    ‘cable television network’ means any system consisting of a set of closed transmission paths and associated signal generation, control and distribution equipment, designed to provide cable service for reception by multiple subscribers;
(d)    ‘company’ means a company as defined in section 3 of the Companies Act, 1956; (1 of 1956).
(e)    ‘person’ means—
(i)    an individual who is a citizen of India;
(ii)    an association of individuals or body of individuals, whether incorporated or not, whose members are citizens of India;
(iii)    a company in which not less than fifty-one per cent of the paid-up share capital is held by the citizens of India;
(f)    ‘prescribed’ means prescribed by rules made under this Act;
(g)    ‘programme’ means any television broadcast and includes—
(i)    exhibition of films, features, dramas, advertisements and serials through video cassette recorders or video cassette players;
(ii)    any audio or visual or audio-visual live performance or presentation, and the expression ‘programming service’ shall be construed accordingly;

[1] Act No. 7 of 1995. Act as enactment date on 25 March 1995. Published in Gazette of India extraordinary Part II Section I, dated 25 March 1995.
[2] Inserted by the Cable Tekevision Networks (Regulation) Amendment Act, 2000, with effect from 1.9.2000.
[3] Clause (a) relettered as clause (aa) by Act 36 of 2000 with effect from 1.9.2000.

  (h)‘registering authority’ means such authority as the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, specify to perform the functions of the registering authority under this Act;
(i)    ‘subscriber’ means a person who receives the signals of cable television network at a place indicated by him to the cable operator, without further transmitting it to any other person.
 

CHAPTER II
Regulation of cable television network

3. Cable television network not to be operated except after registration.—No person shall operate a cable television network unless he is registered as a cable operator under this Act:
Provided that a person operating a cable television network, immediately before the commencement of this Act, may continue to do so for a period of ninety days from such commencement; and if he has made an application for registration as a cable operator under section 4 within the said period, till he is registered under that section or the registering authority refuses to grant registration to him under that section.
4. Registration as cable operator.—
(1) Any person who is operating or is desirous of operating a cable television network may apply for registration as a cable operator to the registering authority.
(2) An application under sub-section (1) shall be made in such form and be accompanied by such fee as may be prescribed.
(3) On receipt of the application, the registering authority shall satisfy itself that the applicant has furnished all the required information and on being so satisfied, register the applicant as a cable operator and grant to him a certificate of such registration:
Provided that the registering authority may, for reasons to be recorded in writing and communicated to the applicant, refuse to grant registration to him if it is satisfied that he does not fulfil the conditions specified in clause (e) of section 2.
[4][‘4A. Transmission of programmes through addressable system, etc.—(1) Where the Central Government is satisfied that it is necessary in the public interest to do so, it may, by notification in the Official Gazette, make it obligatory for every cable operator to transmit or retransmit programme of any pay channel through an addressable system with effect from such date as may be specified in the notification and different dates may be specified for different States, cities, towns or areas, as the case may be.
(2) If the Central Government is satisfied that it is necessary in the public  interest so to do, it may, by notification in the Official Gazette, specify one or more free-to-air channels to be included in the package of channels forming basic service tier and any or more such channels may be specified, in the notification, genre-wise for providing a programme mix of entertainment, information, education and such other programmes.
(3) The Central Government may specify in the notification referred to in sub-section (2), the number of free-to-air channels to be included in the package of channels forming basic service tier for the purposes of that sub-section and different numbers may be specified for different States, cities, towns or areas, as the case may be.
(4) If the Central Government is satisfied that it is necessary in the public interest so to do, it may, by notification in the Official Gazette, specify the maximum amount which a cable operator may demand from the subscriber for receiving the programmes transmitted in the basic service tier provided by such cable operator.
(5) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (4), the Central Government may, for the purposes of that sub-section, specify in the notification referred to in that sub-section different maximum amounts for different States, cities, towns or areas, as the case may be.
(6) Notwithstanding anything contained in this section, programmes of basic service tier shall be receivable by any subscriber on the receiver set of a type existing immediately before the commencement of the Cable Television Networks (Regulation) Amendment Act, 2002 without any addressable system attached with such receiver set in any manner.
(7) Every cable operator shall publicise, in the prescribed manner, to the subscribers the subscription rates and the periodic intervals at which such subscriptions are payable for receiving each pay channel provided by such cable operator.
(8) The cable operator shall not require any subscriber to have a receiver set of a particular type to receive signals of cable television network:
Provided that the subscriber shall use an addressable system to be attached to his receiver set for receiving programmes transmitted on pay channel.
(9) Every cable operator shall submit a report to the Central Government in the prescribed form and manner containing the information regarding—
(i)    the number of total subscribers;
(ii)    subscription rates;
(iii)    number of subscribers receiving programmes transmitted in basic service tier or particular programme or set of programmes transmitted on pay channel;
in respect of cable services provided by such cable operator through a cable television network, and such report shall be submitted periodically at such intervals as may be prescribed and shall also contain the rate of amount, if any, payable by the cable operator to any broadcaster.
      Explanation.—For the purposes of this section,—
(a)    ‘addressable system’ means an electronic device or more than one electronic devices put in an integrated system through which signals of cable television network can be sent in encrypted or unencrypted form, which can be decoded by the device or devices at the premises of the subscriber within the limits of authorisation made, on the choice and request of such subscriber, by the cable operator to the subscriber;
(b)    ‘basic service tier’ means a package of free-to-air channels provided by a cable operator, for a single price to the subscribers of the area in which his cable television network is providing service and such channels are receivable for viewing by the subscribers on the receiver set of a type existing immediately before the commencement of the Cable Television Networks (Regulation) Amendment Act, 2002 without any addressable system attached to such receiver set in any manner;
(c)    ‘channel’ means a set of frequencies used for transmission of a programme;
(d)    ‘encrypted’, in respect of a signal of cable television network, means the changing of such signal in a systematic way so that the signal would be unintelligible without a suitable receiving equipment and the expression ‘unencrypted’ shall be construed accordingly;
(e)    ‘free-to-air channel’, in respect of a cable television network, means a channel, the reception of which would not require the use of any addressable system to be attached with the receiver set of a subscriber;
(f)    ‘pay channel’, in respect of a cable television network, means a channel the reception of which by the subscriber would require the use of an addressable system to be attached to his receiver set.’]
[4] Inserted by Act No. 2 of 2003, section 2 with effect from 31.12.2002.
5.

Programme code.—No person shall transmit or re-transmit through a cable service any programme unless such programme is in conformity with the prescribed programme code:
[5][****]

[5] Proviso omitted by the Cable Television Networks (Regulation) Amendment Act, 2000, with effect from 1.9.2000. Prior to its omission, proviso read as under:
‘Provided that nothing in this section shall apply to the programmes of foreign satellite channels which can be received without the use of any specialised gadgets or decoder.’

6.

Advertisement code.—No person shall transmit or re-transmit through a cable service any advertisement unless such advertisement is in conformity with the prescribed advertisement code:
[6][****]

[6] Proviso omitted by the Cable Television Networks (Regulation) Amendment Act, 2000, with effect from 1.9.2000. Prior to its omission, proviso read as under:
Provided that nothing in this section shall apply to the programmes of foreign satellite channels which can be received without the use of any specialised gadgets or decoder.

7. Maintenance of register.—Every cable operator shall maintain a register in the prescribed form indicating therein in brief the programmes transmitted or re-transmitted through the cable service during a month and such register shall be maintained by the cable operator for a period of one year after the actual transmission or re-transmission of the said programmes.
8. Compulsory transmission of Doordarshan channels—(1) Every cable operator shall, from the commencement of the Cable Television Networks (Regulation) Amendment Act, 2000, re-transmit at least two Doordarshan terrestrial channels and one regional language channel of a State in the prime band, in satellite mode on frequencies other than those carrying terrestrial frequencies.
(2) The Doordarshan channels referred to in sub-section (1) shall be re-transmitted without any deletion or alteration of any programme transmitted on such channels.]
9.

Use of standard equipment in cable television network.—No cable operator shall, on and from the date of the expiry of a period of three years from the date of the establishment and publication of the Indian Standard by the Bureau of Indian Standards in accordance with the provisions of the Bureau of Indian Standards Act, 1986, use any equipment in his cable television network unless such equipment conforms to the said Indian standard:
[8][Provided that the equipment required for the purposes of section 4A shall be installed by cable operator in his cable television network within six months from the date, specified in the notification issued under sub-section (1) of that section, in accordance with the provisions of the said Act for said purposes.]

[8] Inserted by the Cable Television Networks (Regulation) Amendment Act, 2002, with effect from 31.12.2002.

10. Cable television network not to interfere with any telecommunication system.—Every cable operator shall ensure that the cable television network being operated by him does not interfere, in any way, with the functioning of the authorised telecommunication systems
  CHAPTER III
Seizure and confiscation of certain equipment
11.

Power to seize equipment used for operating the cable television network.— [9][(1) If any authorized officer has reason to believe that the provisions of section 3, [10] [4A], 5, 6 or 8 have been or are being contravened by any cable operator, he may seize the equipment being used by such cable  operator for operating the cable television  network.]
(2) No such equipment shall be retained by the authorised officer for a period exceeding ten days from the date of its seizure unless the approval of the District Judge, within the local limits of whose jurisdiction such seizure has been made, has been obtained for such retention.

[9] ASubstituted by the Cable Television Networks (Regulation) Amendment Act, 2000 with effect from 1.9.2000. Prior to its substitution, sub-section (1)  read as under:
‘(1) If any officer, not below the rank of a Group `A’ officer of the Central Government authorised in this behalf by the Government (hereinafter referred to as the authorised officer), has reason to believe that the provisions of section 3 have been or are being contravened by any cable operator, he may seize the equipment being used by such cable operator for operating the cable television network.’

[10]          Inserted by the Cable Television Networks (Regulation) Amendment Act, 2002, with effect from 31.12.2002.

 

 

12. Confiscation.—The equipment seized under sub-section (1) of section 11 shall be liable to confiscation unless the cable operator from whom the equipment has been seized registers himself as a cable operator under section 4 within a period of thirty days from the date of seizure of the said equipment.
13. Seizure or confiscation of equipment not to interfere with other punishment.—No seizure or confiscation of equipment referred to in section 11 or section 12 shall prevent the infliction of any punishment to which the person affected thereby is liable under the provisions of this Act.
14. Giving of opportunity to the cable operator of seized equipment.—(1) No order adjudicating confiscation of the equipment referred to in section 12 shall be made unless the cable operator has been given a notice in writing informing him of the grounds on which it is proposed to confiscate such equipment and giving him a reasonable opportunity of making a representation in writing, within such reasonable time as may be specified in the notice against the confiscation and if he so desires of being heard in the matter:
Provided that where no such notice is given within a period of ten days from the date of the seizure of the equipment, such equipment shall be returned after the expiry of that period to the cable operator from whose possession it was seized.
(2) Save as otherwise provided in sub-section (1), the provisions of the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 (5 of 1908) shall, so far as may be, apply to every proceeding referred to in sub-section (1).
15. Appeal.—(1) Any person aggrieved by any decision of the court adjudicating a confiscation of the equipment may prefer an appeal to the court to which an appeal lies from the decision of such court.
(2) The appellate court may, after giving the appellant an opportunity of being heard, pass such order as it thinks fit confirming, modifying or revising the decision appealed against or may send back the case with such directions as it may think fit for a fresh decision or adjudication, as the case may be, after taking additional evidence if necessary.
(3) No further appeal shall lie against the order of the court made under sub-section (2).
  CHAPTER IV
 Offences and penalties
16.

Punishment for contravention of provisions of this Act.—[11][1] Whoever contravenes any of the provisions of this Act shall be punishable,—
(a)    for the first offence, with imprisonment for a term which may extend to two years or with fine which may extend to one thousand rupees or with both;
(b)    for every subsequent offence, with imprisonment for a term which may extend to five years and with fine which may extend to five thousand rupees.
[12][(2) Notwithstanding anything contained in the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 (2 of 1974), the contravention of section 4A shall be a cognizable offence under this section.]

[11]          Section 16 renumbered as sub-section (1) by the Cable Television Networks (Regulation) Amendment Act, 2002.

[12]          Inserted by Act of 2003, section 5, with effect from 31.12.2002.

 

 

17. Offences by companies.—(1) Where an offence under this Act has been committed by a company, every person who, at the time the offence was committed, was in charge of, and was responsible to, the company for the conduct of the business of the company, as well as the company, shall be deemed to be guilty of the offence and shall be liable to be proceeded against and punished accordingly:
Provided that nothing contained in this sub-section shall render any such person liable to any punishment, if he proves that the offence was committed without his knowledge or that he had exercised all due diligence to prevent the commission of such offence.
(2) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (1), where any offence under this Act has been committed by a company and it is proved that the offence has been committed with the consent or connivance of, or is attributable to any negligence on the part of, any director, manager, secretary or other officer of the company, such director, manager, secretary or other officer shall also be deemed to be guilty of that offence and shall be liable to be proceeded against and punished accordingly.
Explanation.—For the purposes of this section,—
(a)    ‘Company’ means any body corporate and includes a firm or other association of individuals; and
(b)    ‘director’ in relation to a firm means a partner in the firm.
18.

Cognizance of offences.—No court shall take cognizance of any offence punishable under this Act except upon a complaint in writing made [13][by any authorized officer.].
CHAPTER V

[13]          Substituted for ‘by such officer, not below the rank of a Group `A’ officer of the Central Government, as the State Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, specify in this behalf’ by Cable Television Networks (Regulation) Amendment Act, 2000, with effect from  1.9.2000.

  CHAPTER V
Miscellaneous
19.

Power to prohibit transmission of certain programmes in public interest.—Where [14] [any authorized officer] , thinks it necessary or expedient so to do in the public interest, he may, by order, prohibit any cable operator from transmitting or re-transmitting [15][any programme or channel if, it is not in conformity with the prescribed programme code referred to in section 5and advertisement code referred to in section 6 or if it is] likely to promote, on grounds of religion, race, language, caste or community or any other ground whatsoever, disharmony or feelings of enmity, hatred or ill-will between different religious, racial, linguistic or regional groups or castes or communities or which is likely to disturb the public tranquillity.

[14]          Substituted for ‘an officer, not below the rank of a Group `A’ officer of the Central Government authorised by the State Government in this behalf’ by Cable Television Networks (Regulation) Amendment Act, 2000, with effect from  1.9.2000.    ‘

[15]          Substituted for ‘any particular programme if it is’ by Cable Television Networks (Regulation) Amendment Act, 2000, with effect from  1.9.2000.   

 

 

20.

Power to prohibit operation of cable television network in public interest.—[16][1] Where the Central Government thinks it necessary or expedient so to do in public interest, it may prohibit the operation of any cable television network in such areas as it may, by notification in the Official Gazette, specify in this behalf.

[16]          Inserted by Cable Television Networks (Regulation) Amendment Act, 2000, with effect from  1.9.2000.

21. Application of other laws not barred.—The provisions of this Act shall be in addition to, and not in derogation of, the Drugs and Cosmetics Act, 1940, (23 of 1940.) the Pharmacy Act, 1948, (8 of 1948.) the Emblems and Names (Prevention of Improper Use) Act, 1950,(12 of 1950.) the Drugs (Control) Act, 1950,(12 of 1950.) the Cinematograph Act, 1952,(37 of 1952.) the Drugs and Magic Remedies (Objectionable Advertisements) Act, 1954,(21 of 1954.) the Prevention of Food Adulteration Act, 1954, (37 of 1954.) the Prize Competitions Act, 1955, (42 of 1955.) the Copyright Act, 1957, (14 of 1957) the Trade and Merchandise Marks Act, 1958, (43 of 1958) the Indecent Representation of Women (Prohibition) Act, 1986 (60 of 1986.) and the Consumer Protection Act, 1986. (68 of 1986).
22.

Power to make rules.—(1) The Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, make rules to carry out the provisions of this Act.
(2) In particular, and without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing power, such rules may provide for all or any of the following matters, namely,—
(a)    the form of application and the fee payable under sub-section (2) of section 4;
[17] [(aa)  the manner of publicising the subscription rates and the periodical intervals at which such subscriptions are payable under sub-section (7) of section 4A;
(aaa)    the form and manner of submitting report under sub-section (9) of section 4A and the interval at which such report shall be submitted periodically under that sub-section;]
(b)    the programme code under section 5;
(c)    the advertisement code under section 6;
(d)    the form of register to be maintained by a cable operator under section 7;
(e)    any other matter which is required to be, or may be, prescribed.
(3) Every rule made under this Act shall be laid, as soon as may be after it is made, before each House of Parliament, while it is in session, for a total period of thirty days which may be comprised in one session or in two or more successive sessions, and if, before the expiry of the session immediately following the session or the successive sessions aforesaid, both Houses agree in making any modification in the rule or both Houses agree that the rule should not be made, the rule shall thereafter have effect only in such modified form or be of no effect, as the case may be; so, however, that any such modification or annulment shall be without prejudice to the validity of anything previously done under that rule.

[17]Inserted by Cable Television Networks (Regulation) Amendment Act, 2002, with effect from  31.12.2002.

23. Repeal and savings.—
(1) The Cable Television Networks (Regulation) Ordinance, 1995 is hereby repealed.
(2) Notwithstanding such repeal, anything done or any action taken under the said Ordinance, shall be deemed to have been done or taken under the corresponding provision of this Act.

TRAICableAct (PDF)